First listen and then answer the following question.
What conclusion does the author draw about noise and health in this piece?
May people in industry and the Services, who have practical experience of noise, regard any investigation of this question as a waste of time; they are not prepared even to admit the possibility that noise affects people. On the other hand, those who dislike noise will sometimes use most inadequate evidence to support their pleas for a quieter society. This is a pity, because noise abatement really is a good cause, and it is likely to be discredited if it gets to be associated with had science.
One allegation often made is that noise produces mental illness. A recent article in a weekly newspaper, for instance, was headed with a striking illustration of a lady in a state of considerable distress, with the caption 'She was yet another victim, reduced to a screaming wreck'. On turning eagerly to the text, one learns that the lady was a typist who found the sound of office typewriters worried her more and more until eventually she had to go into a mental hospital. Now the snag in this sort of anecdote is of course that one merely a symptom? Another patient might equally well complain that her neighbours were combining to slander her and persecute her, and yet one might be cautious about believing this statement.
What is needed in case of noise is a study of large numbers of people living under noisy conditions, to discover whether they are mentally ill more often than other people are. Some time ago the United States Navy, for instance, examined a very large number of men working on aircraft carriers: the study was known as Project Anehin. It can be unpleasant to live even several miles from an aerodrome; if you think what it must be like to share the deck of a ship with several squadrons of jet aircraft, you will realize that a modern navy is a good place to study noise. But neither psychiatric interviews nor objective tests were able to show any effects upon these American sailors. This result merely confirms earlier American and British studies: if there is any effect of noise upon mental health, it must be so small that present methods of psychiatric diagnosis cannot find it. That does not prove that it does exist: but it does mean that noise is less dangerous than, say, being brought up in an orphanage -- which really is mental health hazard.
D.E.BROADBENT Non-auditory effects of noise from Science Survey
auditory adj. 听觉的
inadequate adj. 不适当的
plea n. 需要
abatement n. 降低
discredit v. 怀疑
allegation n. 断言
caption n. 插图说明
wreck n. 残废人
snag n. 疑难之处，障碍
anecdote n. 轶闻
slander v. 诽谤
persecute v. 迫害
squadron n. 中队
psychiatric adj. 精神病学的
diagnosis n. 诊所
orphanage n. 孤儿院
1.the Services 军队
①lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task 不适当的
例句:He has made an inadequate choice.
②not sufficient to meet a need 不充分的
例句:Inadequate food can stunt a child's development.
adequate adj. 足够的, 适当的
3.discredit vt. the state of being held in low esteem 使 ... 不可信, 怀疑, 损害 ... 的信用
例句:They no longer try to discredit the technology itself.
4.be associated with 与 ... 相联系
例句:In children's minds, summers are associated with picnics.
I didn't want to be associated with it at all.
5.allegation n. 断言, 主张, 辩解, 指控
例句:She declared that the allegation was a lie.
He demanded the right of reply to the newspaper allegation.
6.On turning eagerly to the text, one learns that...句中on的意思是on the occasion of, directly after
①vt. 中伤, 诽谤
例句:He that praises publicly will slander privately.
No matter how they slander us, we will never give in.
②n. 中伤, 诽谤
例句:In the last election, they spattered their rivals with slander
8.persecute vt. 迫害, 烦扰, 为难
例句:They persecute those who do not conform to their idea.
9.aircraft carrier 航空母舰
10.That does not prove that it does not exist; but it does mean that...句中出现的3个does的语法功能并不相同，前两个does是一般目前时的否定式采用的助动词，第3个does则是强调使用方法，有强化句意的用途。
对于噪音问题，需要对很多生活在噪音中的人进行研究，看一看他们是不是比其他人更易患精神病。例如，美国海军前些时候调查了许多在航空母航上工作的人，这次调查被称之为：“安内英工程”。即便住在离机场几英里以外的地方，机场的噪音也会使人难受。因此，假如你能想像出和几个中队的喷气机同在一个甲板上是什么滋味儿的话，你就会认识到现代海军是研究噪音的好地方。但是，不管进行精神病学的调查访问，还是进行客观的检测，都不可以显示噪音对这些美国水兵有任何影响。这个结果只不过证实了美国和英国早些时候的研究结论：假如噪音对精神健康有影响的话，那也肯定是微乎其微，以致现代的精神病诊断办法还发现不了。这并不是证实不存在噪音对健康的影响。但它确实说明，噪音的危险性 -- 譬如说 -- 比在孤儿院长大所受的风险要小一些，孤儿院才是真正风险精神健康的地方。
First listen and then answer the following question.
What is the main condition for the preservation of the remains of any living creature?
It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved, for one of the necessary conditions of preservation is quick burial, and it is only in the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes, where mud and sit have been continuously deposited, that bodies and the can be rapidly covered over and preserved.
But even in the most favourable circumstances only a small fraction of the creatures that die are preserved in this way before decay sets in or, even more likely, before scavengers eat them. After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else, whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive, and it is only by chance that such a fate is avoided. The remains of plants and animals that lived on land are much more rarely preserved, for there is seldom anything to cover them over. When you think of the innumerable birds that one sees flying bout, not to mention the equally numerous small animals like field mice and voles which you do not see, it is very rarely that one comes across a dead body, except, of course, on the roads. They decompose and are quickly destroyed by the weather or eaten by some other creature.
It is almost always due to some very special circumstances that traces of land animals survive, as by falling into inaccessible caves, or into an ice crevasse, like the Siberian mammoths, when the whole animal is sometimes preserved, as in a refrigerator. This is what happened to the famous Beresovka mammoth which was found preserved and in good condition. In his mouth were the remains of fir trees -- the last meal that he had before he fell into the crevasse and broke his back. The mammoth has now just a suburb of Los Angeles. Apparently what happened was that water collected on these tar pits, and the bigger animals like the elephants ventured out on to the apparently firm surface to drink, and were promptly bogged in the tar. And then, when they were dead, the carnivores, like the sabre-toothed cats and the giant wolves, came out to feed and suffered exactly the same fate. There are also endless numbers of birds in the tar as well.
ERROL WHITE The past life of the earth from Discovery
preservation n. 保存
silt n. 淤泥
scavenger n. 食腐动物
vole n. 野鼠，鼹鼠
decompose v. 腐烂
inaccessible adj. 不可以到达的
crevasse n. 缝隙
palaeontological adj. 古生物学的
St. Petersburg n. 圣彼得堡
sabre-toothed adj. 长着锐利的长牙
venture v. 冒险
bogged adj. 陷入泥沼的，陷入要困境的
1. 第1段中有两个由it is ...引导的强调句。
一个是It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved, 被强调的部分animals and plants which lived in or near water。另一个强调句是it is only in the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes, ... that bodies and the like can be ..., 这一句中强调的是地点状语。
2.preserve v. 保护, 保存, 维持
例句：It is highly important to preserve the environment.
错句: His life and loves have been preserved at Shaw's Corner.
订正: The record of his life and loves has been preserved at Shaw's Corner.
keep, retain, reserve, preserve, conserve, withhold, maintain, save , store
3.set in 到来，开始
例句：The moist season has set in.
The rot set in when we lost that important customer in Japan.
4.whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive这是让步状语从句，用的是虚拟语气形式。
例句：I, came across an old school friend in Oxford Street this morning.
例句：He spoke for a long time but his meaning did not really come across.
例句：I came across this book in an old bookstore in London.
encounter n.意料之外的相见, 邂逅,...
happen upon 偶然碰到
chance on 偶然碰到
6.decompose vt. 腐烂
例句：Most animals decompose very quickly after death.
Bacteria can decompose organic matter.
7.inaccessible adj. 难接近的, 难达到的, 难达成的
例句：His busy schedule made him completely inaccessible to his students.
inaccessibility n. 难接近, 难达到, 难达成
accessible adj.可得到的, 易接近的...
例句：Beneath that apparently calm surface is a man of fierce temper.
例句：Apparently they're intending to put up the price of water.
① v.冒险, 敢于
例句：Venture a small fish to catch a great one.
He ventured his life to save a little girl from drowning.
②n. 冒险, 风险, 投机
例句：All our hopes rested upon this venture.
venture, chance, dare, hazard, risk这些动词均含有“敢于冒险”之意。
10.bogged adj. 陷入泥沼的, 陷于困境的
例句：The tank bogged down in the mud.
Our discussions got bogged down in irrelevant detail.
几乎一直由于某些特殊的条件，陆地动物的遗体才被存下来，如掉进难以到达的洞穴，或掉进冰河裂缝里，或者像西伯利亚长毛象那样掉进冰窟中，有时整个动物像被放在冰箱里一样被保存下来，的那林索夫卡长毛象就是这样被保存下来的，而且保存得非常不错。它嘴里还留着冷杉 -- 它掉进冰河裂隙折断脊椎柱之前的最后一顿饭。这头长毛象已被修复，现存于圣彼得堡古生物学博物馆。有的动物掉进天然沥清坑里被保存下来，如在兰桥.拉.布里 -- 目前是洛杉矶的郊区发现的大象、剑齿虎和许多其他动物。显然，事情的经过是这样：沥青坑里积存了水，大象那样的大动物冒险到似乎坚固的水面上去饮水，立即掉进了沥青坑。大象死后，一些食肉动物，如剑齿虎和大灰狼就来吃大象，结果遭到了同样的命运。沥青坑里还有无数只鸟的尸体。
First listen and then answer the following question.
What happened to the 'Vasa' almost immediately after she was launched?
From the seventeenth-century empire of Sweden, the story of a galleon that sank at the start of her maiden voyage in 1628 must be one of the strangest tales of the sea. For nearly three and a half centuries she lay at the bottom of Stockholm harbour until her discovery in 1956. This was the Vasa, royal flagship of the great imperial fleet.
King Gustavus Adolphus, 'The Northern Hurricane', then at the height of his military success in the Thirty Years' War, had dictated her measurements and armament. Triple gun-decks mounted sixty-four bronze cannon. She was intended to play a leading role in the growing might of Sweden.
As she was prepared of her maiden voyage on August 10, 1628, Stockholm was in a ferment. From the Skeppsbron and surrounding islands the people watched this thing of beauty begin to spread her sails and catch the wind. They had laboured for three years to produce this floating work of art; she was more richly carved and ornamented than any previous ship. The high stern castle was a riot of carved gods, demons, knights, kings, warriors, mermaids, cherubs; and zoomorphic animal shapes ablaze with rea and gold and blue, symbols of courage, power, and cruelty, were portrayed to stir the imaginations of the superstitious sailors of the day.
Then the cannons of the anchored warships thundered a salute to which the Vasa fired in reply. As she emerged from her drifting cloud of gun smoke with the water churned to foam beneath her bow, her flags flying, pennants waving, sails fillng in the breeze, and the red and gold of her superstructure ablaze with colour, she presented a more majestic spectacle than Stockholmers had ever seen before. All gun-ports were open and the muzzles peeped wickedly from them.
As the wind freshened there came a sudden squall and the ship made a strange movement, listing to port. The Ordnance Officer ordered all the port cannon to be heaved to starboard to counteract the list, but the steepening angle of the decks increased. Then the sound of rumbling thunder reached the watchers on the shore, as cargo, ballast, ammunition and 400 people went sliding and crashing down to the port side of the steeply listing ship. The lower gun-ports were now below water and the inrush sealed the ship's fate. In that first glorious hour, the mighty Vasa, which was intended to rule the Baltic, sank with all flags flying-in the harbour of her birth.
ROY SAUNGERS The Raising of the 'Vasa' from The Listener
galleon n. 大型帆船
Stockholm n. 斯德哥尔摩
flagship n. 旗舰
imperial adj. 帝国的
hurricane n. 飓风
armament n. 军械
triple adj. 三层的
mount v. 架有
bronze n. 青铜
cannon n. 加农炮
port n. 左舷
starboard n. 右舷
1.the 'Vasa',瓦萨号战船。这艘船是以瑞典瓦萨王朝开创者Gustavus Vasa的姓氏命名的。Gustavus Vasa曾领导了反对丹麦统治的*，1523年出任国王，使瑞典成为了一个独立、统一、富强的国家。
2.maiden voyage 处女航，首航
3.the Thirty Years’ War, 三十年战争。这是欧洲历的一场多国混战，具有政治色彩和宗教色彩，是新教诸侯和天主教诸侯之间的连年战争，最后在1648年签订了《韦斯特伐利亚条约》，以天主教诸侯的失败而告终。
例句：Her skills were in such demand that she could dictate her own salary.
例句：He mounted the bicycle and rode away.
例句：The ship mounts eight guns.
ascend, climb, mount这些动词均含有“攀登，上升”之意。
6.a riot of, 许多......，主要指色彩丰富。
7.with the water churned..., her flags flying, pennants waving, sails filling..., and the red and gold... ablaze...with后有5个独立主格结构，均作方法状语，修饰动词emerged.
例句：My stomach started to churn when I thought about my exams.
例句： A good clean will really freshen the house.
例句：As they climbed into the dinghy, it began to list violently.
例句：He listed all the things he had to do.
n. 目录, 名单, 明细表
例句：We should get the samples on the list to check.
11.counteract vt. 抵消, 中和, 消解, 抵制
例句： They will counteract the effects of his bad influence.