推广 热搜: 作文  学习方法  初中学习方法  方法  语文  高中学习方法  励志  小学  各学科学习方法  中考 

新定义英语第4册课文翻译及学习笔记Lesson25~27

   日期:2020-07-13     来源:www.vqunkong.com    作者:智学网    浏览:671    评论:0    
核心提示:新定义英语一共144课。整本书无论是语法还是词语,题材还是语句,都有其出彩之处。正是由于如此,新定义英语更是经久不衰,深受

新定义英语一共144课。整本书无论是语法还是词语,题材还是语句,都有其出彩之处。正是由于如此,新定义英语更是经久不衰,深受广大英语学习者的青睐。无忧考网为您整理了“新定义英语第4册课文翻译及学习笔记Lesson25~27”,期望可以协助到您!



新定义英语第4册课文翻译及学习笔记Lesson25


  


  First listen and then answer the following question.


  听录音,然后回答以下问题。


  What conclusion does the author draw about noise and health in this piece?


  May people in industry and the Services, who have practical experience of noise, regard any investigation of this question as a waste of time; they are not prepared even to admit the possibility that noise affects people. On the other hand, those who dislike noise will sometimes use most inadequate evidence to support their pleas for a quieter society. This is a pity, because noise abatement really is a good cause, and it is likely to be discredited if it gets to be associated with had science.


  One allegation often made is that noise produces mental illness. A recent article in a weekly newspaper, for instance, was headed with a striking illustration of a lady in a state of considerable distress, with the caption 'She was yet another victim, reduced to a screaming wreck'. On turning eagerly to the text, one learns that the lady was a typist who found the sound of office typewriters worried her more and more until eventually she had to go into a mental hospital. Now the snag in this sort of anecdote is of course that one merely a symptom? Another patient might equally well complain that her neighbours were combining to slander her and persecute her, and yet one might be cautious about believing this statement.


  What is needed in case of noise is a study of large numbers of people living under noisy conditions, to discover whether they are mentally ill more often than other people are. Some time ago the United States Navy, for instance, examined a very large number of men working on aircraft carriers: the study was known as Project Anehin. It can be unpleasant to live even several miles from an aerodrome; if you think what it must be like to share the deck of a ship with several squadrons of jet aircraft, you will realize that a modern navy is a good place to study noise. But neither psychiatric interviews nor objective tests were able to show any effects upon these American sailors. This result merely confirms earlier American and British studies: if there is any effect of noise upon mental health, it must be so small that present methods of psychiatric diagnosis cannot find it. That does not prove that it does exist: but it does mean that noise is less dangerous than, say, being brought up in an orphanage -- which really is mental health hazard.


  D.E.BROADBENT Non-auditory effects of noise from Science Survey


  


  auditory adj. 听觉的


  inadequate adj. 不适当的


  plea n. 需要


  abatement n. 降低


  discredit v. 怀疑


  allegation n. 断言


  caption n. 插图说明


  wreck n. 残废人


  snag n. 疑难之处,障碍


  anecdote n. 轶闻


  slander v. 诽谤


  persecute v. 迫害


  squadron n. 中队


  psychiatric adj. 精神病学的


  diagnosis n. 诊所


  orphanage n. 孤儿院


  


  1.the Services 军队


  2.inadequate adj.


  ①lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task 不适当的


  例句:He has made an inadequate choice.


  他做了一个不适当的选择。


  ②not sufficient to meet a need 不充分的


  例句:Inadequate food can stunt a child's development.


  食物不足能影响儿童的发育。


  adequate adj. 足够的, 适当的


  3.discredit vt. the state of being held in low esteem 使 ... 不可信, 怀疑, 损害 ... 的信用


  例句:They no longer try to discredit the technology itself.


  他们不再试图怀疑这种技术本身。


  4.be associated with 与 ... 相联系


  例句:In children's minds, summers are associated with picnics.


  在孩子们看来,夏季一直和郊游连在一起的。


  I didn't want to be associated with it at all.


  我根本不想与这事有牵连。


  5.allegation n. 断言, 主张, 辩解, 指控


  例句:She declared that the allegation was a lie.


  她断言这一说法是谎言。


  He demanded the right of reply to the newspaper allegation.


  他需要获得对报纸断言的答辩权。


  6.On turning eagerly to the text, one learns that...句中on的意思是on the occasion of, directly after


  7.slander


  ①vt. 中伤, 诽谤


  例句:He that praises publicly will slander privately.


  当面夸赞你的人,会在背后中伤你。


  No matter how they slander us, we will never give in.


  不管他们如何诽谤大家,大家决不让步。


  ②n. 中伤, 诽谤


  例句:In the last election, they spattered their rivals with slander


  在上届选举中,他们用谣言中伤对手。


  8.persecute vt. 迫害, 烦扰, 为难


  例句:They persecute those who do not conform to their idea.


  他们迫害那些不信奉他们思想的人。


  9.aircraft carrier 航空母舰


  10.That does not prove that it does not exist; but it does mean that...句中出现的3个does的语法功能并不相同,前两个does是一般目前时的否定式采用的助动词,第3个does则是强调使用方法,有强化句意的用途。


  


  在工业部门工作和在军队中服役的许多人对噪声音有切身的领会,他们觉得对这个问题进行调查中费时,甚至不愿承认噪音可能对人有影响。另一方面,那些讨厌噪音的人有时会用不充分的证据来支持他们期望有一个较为安静的社会环境的需要。需要降低噪音是件好事,但是假如与拙劣的科学掺杂在一起的话,就不会被大家所信赖,这是很遗憾的。


  容易见到的一种指责是,噪音能引起精神病。例如,最近一家周报刊登了一篇文章,文章上方有一幅引人注目的插图,是一位表情沮丧的女子。图的文字说明:“她是又一个受害者,成了只会尖叫的可怜虫。”当大家急切地看完正文后,便知道这女子是个打字员,办公室打字机的声音使她愈来愈烦,最后住进了精神病医院。这种类型奇闻的疑难之处是没办法不同因果关系。是噪音引起了病呢,还是病的症状之一是对噪音的抱怨?另有一位病人可能同样有理由抱怨说,她的邻居们正在联合起来对她进行诽谤和迫害,不过,大家不会轻信她的抱怨。


  对于噪音问题,需要对很多生活在噪音中的人进行研究,看一看他们是不是比其他人更易患精神病。例如,美国海军前些时候调查了许多在航空母航上工作的人,这次调查被称之为:“安内英工程”。即便住在离机场几英里以外的地方,机场的噪音也会使人难受。因此,假如你能想像出和几个中队的喷气机同在一个甲板上是什么滋味儿的话,你就会认识到现代海军是研究噪音的好地方。但是,不管进行精神病学的调查访问,还是进行客观的检测,都不可以显示噪音对这些美国水兵有任何影响。这个结果只不过证实了美国和英国早些时候的研究结论:假如噪音对精神健康有影响的话,那也肯定是微乎其微,以致现代的精神病诊断办法还发现不了。这并不是证实不存在噪音对健康的影响。但它确实说明,噪音的危险性 -- 譬如说 -- 比在孤儿院长大所受的风险要小一些,孤儿院才是真正风险精神健康的地方。



新定义英语第4册课文翻译及学习笔记Lesson26


  


  First listen and then answer the following question.


  听录音,然后回答以下问题。


  What is the main condition for the preservation of the remains of any living creature?


  It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved, for one of the necessary conditions of preservation is quick burial, and it is only in the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes, where mud and sit have been continuously deposited, that bodies and the can be rapidly covered over and preserved.


  But even in the most favourable circumstances only a small fraction of the creatures that die are preserved in this way before decay sets in or, even more likely, before scavengers eat them. After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else, whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive, and it is only by chance that such a fate is avoided. The remains of plants and animals that lived on land are much more rarely preserved, for there is seldom anything to cover them over. When you think of the innumerable birds that one sees flying bout, not to mention the equally numerous small animals like field mice and voles which you do not see, it is very rarely that one comes across a dead body, except, of course, on the roads. They decompose and are quickly destroyed by the weather or eaten by some other creature.


  It is almost always due to some very special circumstances that traces of land animals survive, as by falling into inaccessible caves, or into an ice crevasse, like the Siberian mammoths, when the whole animal is sometimes preserved, as in a refrigerator. This is what happened to the famous Beresovka mammoth which was found preserved and in good condition. In his mouth were the remains of fir trees -- the last meal that he had before he fell into the crevasse and broke his back. The mammoth has now just a suburb of Los Angeles. Apparently what happened was that water collected on these tar pits, and the bigger animals like the elephants ventured out on to the apparently firm surface to drink, and were promptly bogged in the tar. And then, when they were dead, the carnivores, like the sabre-toothed cats and the giant wolves, came out to feed and suffered exactly the same fate. There are also endless numbers of birds in the tar as well.


  ERROL WHITE The past life of the earth from Discovery


  


  preservation n. 保存


  silt n. 淤泥


  scavenger n. 食腐动物


  vole n. 野鼠,鼹鼠


  decompose v. 腐烂


  inaccessible adj. 不可以到达的


  crevasse n. 缝隙


  Siberian adj.西伯利亚的


  palaeontological adj. 古生物学的


  St. Petersburg n. 圣彼得堡


  sabre-toothed adj. 长着锐利的长牙


  venture v. 冒险


  bogged adj. 陷入泥沼的,陷入要困境的


  


  1. 第1段中有两个由it is ...引导的强调句。


  一个是It is animals and plants which lived in or near water whose remains are most likely to be preserved, 被强调的部分animals and plants which lived in or near water。另一个强调句是it is only in the seas and rivers, and sometimes lakes, ... that bodies and the like can be ..., 这一句中强调的是地点状语。


  2.preserve v. 保护, 保存, 维持


  例句:It is highly important to preserve the environment.


  保护自然环境至关要紧。


  


  错句: His life and loves have been preserved at Shaw's Corner.


  订正: The record of his life and loves has been preserved at Shaw's Corner.


  翻译: 他的生活与感情记录都保存在“萧氏角落”里。


  剖析: 这里的错误是把“生活”与“生活的记录”混淆在了一起,意思表达不清楚。


  


  keep, retain, reserve, preserve, conserve, withhold, maintain, save , store


  这些动词均有“维持,保存”之意。


  keep: 最常用词,指长期牢固地维持或保存。


  retain: 指继续维持。


  reserve: 正式用词,指为了以后的功效与作用或其他功效与作用而保存、保留。


  preserve: 主要指为预防损害、变质等而保存。


  conserve: 一般指保存自然资源,保全人的精力、力量等。


  withhold: 指扣住不放,暗示有阻碍。


  maintain: 指维持原样,不增不减


  save: 一般用词,指尽可能少用,以争取数目上有所增加。


  store: 一般用词,指将物品存放,以备以后采用。


  3.set in 到来,开始


  例句:The moist season has set in.


  雨季已到来。


  The rot set in when we lost that important customer in Japan.


  大家失去了日本的那家要紧顾客後,状况愈来愈糟了。


  4.whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive这是让步状语从句,用的是虚拟语气形式。


  5.come across


  ①碰到, 遇到


  例句:I, came across an old school friend in Oxford Street this morning.


  今天早上我在牛津大街碰见一位老校友。


  ②被理解


  例句:He spoke for a long time but his meaning did not really come across.


  他讲了很长期,但他的意思无人真正理解。


  ③无意中发现


  例句:I came across this book in an old bookstore in London.


  我在伦敦一家旧书店里发现了这本书。


  


  encounter n.意料之外的相见, 邂逅,...


  happen upon 偶然碰到


  chance on 偶然碰到


  6.decompose vt. 腐烂


  例句:Most animals decompose very quickly after death.


  大部分动物死后很快腐烂。


  Bacteria can decompose organic matter.


  细菌能使有机物腐烂。


  7.inaccessible adj. 难接近的, 难达到的, 难达成的


  例句:His busy schedule made him completely inaccessible to his students.


  他的时间排得很满,学生根本没办法和他接触。


  inaccessibility n. 难接近, 难达到, 难达成


  accessible adj.可得到的, 易接近的...


  8.apparently adv.


  ①表面上


  例句:Beneath that apparently calm surface is a man of fierce temper.


  文静的外表掩盖着的是一个火暴脾气的人。


  ②似乎, 显然


  例句:Apparently they're intending to put up the price of water.


  看来他们要提升水费了。


  9.venture


  ① v.冒险, 敢于


  例句:Venture a small fish to catch a great one.


  [谚]欲钓大鱼,先舍小鱼。


  He ventured his life to save a little girl from drowning.


  他冒生命危险救起了一个小女孩,使她免于淹死。


  ②n. 冒险, 风险, 投机


  例句:All our hopes rested upon this venture.


  大家所有的期望都寄托在这次冒险上了。


  


  venture, chance, dare, hazard, risk这些动词均含有“敢于冒险”之意。


  venture: 指冒风险试一试,或指有礼貌的反抗或反对。


  chance: 指碰运气、冒风险试试。


  dare: 可与venture换用,但语气较强,着重挑战或违抗。


  hazard: 主要指冒险作出某个选择,隐含碰运气意味。


  risk: 指不顾个人安危去干某事,侧重主动承担风险。


  10.bogged adj. 陷入泥沼的, 陷于困境的


  例句:The tank bogged down in the mud.


  坦克陷入泥沼之中。


  Our discussions got bogged down in irrelevant detail.


  自己的讨论纠缠在不重要的细则上。


  


  只有生活在水中或水边的动植物尸体最有可能被保存下来,由于保存的必要条件之一是飞速掩埋,所以只有在泥沙不停淤积的海洋和江河里,有时在湖泊里,尸体之类的东西才能被飞速地覆盖而保存下来。


  即便是在最有利的环境中,死去的生物中也只有一小部分能在开始腐烂前,或更可能在被食腐动物吃掉之前,被这样保存下来。由于一切生物都是靠吃别的东西来活命的,不管这种东西是植物还是动物,死的还是活的,因此,生物偶尔才能防止被吃掉的命运。曾在陆地上生活过的动植物的遗体被保存下来的更为罕见,由于陆地上几乎没有哪些东西覆盖它们。你可以想象出天上有看得见的飞来飞去、数不清的鸟,地上有不显眼的无数的老鼠和田鼠之类的小动物,但是,除非在路上,很少有人遇到这些动物的尸体,由于它们腐败之后很快就被风化掉,或被别的动物吃掉了。


  几乎一直由于某些特殊的条件,陆地动物的遗体才被存下来,如掉进难以到达的洞穴,或掉进冰河裂缝里,或者像西伯利亚长毛象那样掉进冰窟中,有时整个动物像被放在冰箱里一样被保存下来,的那林索夫卡长毛象就是这样被保存下来的,而且保存得非常不错。它嘴里还留着冷杉 -- 它掉进冰河裂隙折断脊椎柱之前的最后一顿饭。这头长毛象已被修复,现存于圣彼得堡古生物学博物馆。有的动物掉进天然沥清坑里被保存下来,如在兰桥.拉.布里 -- 目前是洛杉矶的郊区发现的大象、剑齿虎和许多其他动物。显然,事情的经过是这样:沥青坑里积存了水,大象那样的大动物冒险到似乎坚固的水面上去饮水,立即掉进了沥青坑。大象死后,一些食肉动物,如剑齿虎和大灰狼就来吃大象,结果遭到了同样的命运。沥青坑里还有无数只鸟的尸体。



新定义英语第4册课文翻译及学习笔记Lesson27


  First listen and then answer the following question.


  听录音,然后回答以下问题。


  What happened to the 'Vasa' almost immediately after she was launched?


  From the seventeenth-century empire of Sweden, the story of a galleon that sank at the start of her maiden voyage in 1628 must be one of the strangest tales of the sea. For nearly three and a half centuries she lay at the bottom of Stockholm harbour until her discovery in 1956. This was the Vasa, royal flagship of the great imperial fleet.


  King Gustavus Adolphus, 'The Northern Hurricane', then at the height of his military success in the Thirty Years' War, had dictated her measurements and armament. Triple gun-decks mounted sixty-four bronze cannon. She was intended to play a leading role in the growing might of Sweden.


  As she was prepared of her maiden voyage on August 10, 1628, Stockholm was in a ferment. From the Skeppsbron and surrounding islands the people watched this thing of beauty begin to spread her sails and catch the wind. They had laboured for three years to produce this floating work of art; she was more richly carved and ornamented than any previous ship. The high stern castle was a riot of carved gods, demons, knights, kings, warriors, mermaids, cherubs; and zoomorphic animal shapes ablaze with rea and gold and blue, symbols of courage, power, and cruelty, were portrayed to stir the imaginations of the superstitious sailors of the day.


  Then the cannons of the anchored warships thundered a salute to which the Vasa fired in reply. As she emerged from her drifting cloud of gun smoke with the water churned to foam beneath her bow, her flags flying, pennants waving, sails fillng in the breeze, and the red and gold of her superstructure ablaze with colour, she presented a more majestic spectacle than Stockholmers had ever seen before. All gun-ports were open and the muzzles peeped wickedly from them.


  As the wind freshened there came a sudden squall and the ship made a strange movement, listing to port. The Ordnance Officer ordered all the port cannon to be heaved to starboard to counteract the list, but the steepening angle of the decks increased. Then the sound of rumbling thunder reached the watchers on the shore, as cargo, ballast, ammunition and 400 people went sliding and crashing down to the port side of the steeply listing ship. The lower gun-ports were now below water and the inrush sealed the ship's fate. In that first glorious hour, the mighty Vasa, which was intended to rule the Baltic, sank with all flags flying-in the harbour of her birth.


  ROY SAUNGERS The Raising of the 'Vasa' from The Listener


  


  galleon n. 大型帆船


  Stockholm n. 斯德哥尔摩


  flagship n. 旗舰


  imperial adj. 帝国的


  hurricane n. 飓风


  armament n. 军械


  triple adj. 三层的


  mount v. 架有


  bronze n. 青铜


  cannon n. 加农炮


  might n.力量


  ferment n.激动不安


  ornament v.装饰


  riot n.丰富


  demon n.恶魔


  mermaid n.美人鱼


  cherub n.小天使


  zoomorphic adj.兽行的


  ablaze adj.光彩的


  portray v.绘制


  drifting adj.弥漫的


  churn v.翻滚


  pennant n.三角旗


  superstructure n.上部结构


  majestic adj.威严的


  muzzle n.炮口


  freshen v.变强


  squall n.狂风


  list v.倾斜


  port n. 左舷


  ordnance n.军械


  heave v.拖


  starboard n. 右舷


  counteract v.抵消


  steepen v.变得更陡峭


  ballast n.压舱物


  inrush n.水的涌入


  Baltic n.波罗的海


  


  1.the 'Vasa',瓦萨号战船。这艘船是以瑞典瓦萨王朝开创者Gustavus Vasa的姓氏命名的。Gustavus Vasa曾领导了反对丹麦统治的*,1523年出任国王,使瑞典成为了一个独立、统一、富强的国家。


  2.maiden voyage 处女航,首航


  3.the Thirty Years’ War, 三十年战争。这是欧洲历的一场多国混战,具有政治色彩和宗教色彩,是新教诸侯和天主教诸侯之间的连年战争,最后在1648年签订了《韦斯特伐利亚条约》,以天主教诸侯的失败而告终。


  4.dictate v.规定


  例句:Her skills were in such demand that she could dictate her own salary.


  她因其技术奇货可居,故可以主宰我们的薪金待遇。


  5.mount v.


  ①登上,爬上;骑上;骑在...上


  例句:He mounted the bicycle and rode away.


  他骑上自行车走了。


  ②架置;装有


  例句:The ship mounts eight guns.


  这艘军舰装有八门大炮。


  


  ascend, climb, mount这些动词均含有“攀登,上升”之意。


  ascend: 正式用词,指不需要手攀,一直上升直到相当高的地方。


  climb: 一般用词,含义广泛,侧重运用手足费力地攀登或上升,也可指抽象事物。


  mount: 书面用词,词义与ascend相近,强调连续不断地向上移动、攀登或上涨。指骑马时用mount。


  6.a riot of, 许多......,主要指色彩丰富。


  7.with the water churned..., her flags flying, pennants waving, sails filling..., and the red and gold... ablaze...with后有5个独立主格结构,均作方法状语,修饰动词emerged.


  8.churn v.翻滚,搅动


  例句:My stomach started to churn when I thought about my exams.


  一想到考试,我的胃就开始翻腾。


  9.freshen v.


  ①变新鲜


  例句: A good clean will really freshen the house.


  好好拾掇一下的确会使房子焕然一新。


  ②变强


  10.list


  v.


  ①倾斜


  例句:As they climbed into the dinghy, it began to list violently.


  当他们登上救生艇时,救生艇开始剧烈地倾斜。


  ②列出


  例句:He listed all the things he had to do.


  他把自身需要做的事列成表。


  n. 目录, 名单, 明细表


  例句:We should get the samples on the list to check.


  大家应该索取目录上的样品来检验一下。


  11.counteract vt. 抵消, 中和, 消解, 抵制


  例句: They will counteract the effects of his bad influence.


  他们要清除他的不好的影响。


  


  1628年,一艘大帆船在处女航时就沉没了,这个从容不迫7世纪瑞典帝国流传到今天的故事无疑是航海最离奇的事件之一。这艘大船在斯德哥尔摩港口的海底躺了将近3个半世纪之后,直到1956年才被发现。这就是“瓦萨”号,帝国大舰队的皇家旗舰。


  当时号称“北方飓风”的国王古斯夫斯.阿道尔弗正处在“三十年战争”的军事鼎盛阶段,他亲自规定了这艘船的规模和武器配备。3层的火炮甲板上装着64门青铜加农炮,目的就是要在不断增长的瑞典势力中起主导功效。


  1628年8月10日,“瓦萨”号筹备首航时,斯德哥尔摩一片欢腾。大家从斯开波斯布朗和周围的岛屿前来观看这艘美丽的战船扬帆起航,乘风前进。瑞典人辛辛苦苦干了3年才建成这件水上艺术品,它比以往任何船只雕刻得都愈加精美,装饰得都愈加华丽。高耸的船楼上雕刻了令人眼花缭乱的神仙、妖魔、骑士、国王、武士、美人鱼和小天使,还有用红色、金黄色、蓝色绘制的光彩夺目的兽形图案,象征着勇敢、力量和残暴,以激起当时崇尚迷信的水手们的想像。


  这个时候,停泊在港口的其他战船向“瓦萨”号鸣炮致礼,“瓦萨”号也鸣炮回礼。当“瓦萨”号从弥漫的礼炮烟云中出现时,船头下浪花四溅,舰旗迎风招展,三角旗随风飘动,微风鼓起风帆,金碧辉煌的船楼闪耀着灿烂的色彩。“瓦萨”号展示的壮观景象是斯德哥尔摩人从未见过的。船上的炮眼开着,炮口虎视眈眈地向外窥视着。


  当风力增强时,突然刮来一阵大风,“瓦萨”号奇怪地摇晃了一下,便向左舷倾斜。炮长命令把左舷上所有大炮搬到右舷上来以抵消船的倾斜,但甲板的倾斜度仍在增加。当物品、压舱物、弹药和400个人轰地一声滑向陡斜的左舷时,岸上的观众听到了雷鸣般的轰响。下层炮眼已淹没在水里,涌进船舱的水给“瓦萨”号带来了难以逃脱的厄运。就这样,想要统治波罗的海的大型战舰“瓦萨”号,在它壮丽的起航时刻,带着全身飘扬的彩旗,沉没在了它诞生的港口。


 
标签: 新概念英语
打赏
 
更多>智慧教育相关文章
0相关评论

推荐图文
推荐智慧教育
点击排行
网站首页  |  关于我们  |  联系方式  |  使用协议  |  版权隐私  |  网站地图  |  排名推广  |  广告服务  |  积分换礼  |  网站留言  |  RSS订阅  |  违规举报
乐课网-智学网在线教育平台